Five O’Clock
1964, Lithograph

Lithographs are typically created on stone or metal plates. The surface is cleaned and polished thoroughly prior to starting. The images are drawn on with lithographic crayons, all of which have different degrees of hardness or softness. Different crayons are used to make darker tones versus lighter tones. The black and white gradient range you can create for a lithograph separates this art form from etchings, engravings and woodcuts. Once the crayon drawing is complete, the image is chemically treated to either adhere or repel ink in the right parts of the image. Then the image is ready to be rolled with ink- firmer rolling for darker contrast and gentle rolling for lighter contrast. At the end, the lithograph stone is covered with special paper and put under pressure. That pressure transfers the ink from the stone to the paper, leaving the image of the lithograph. It is quite a craft that requires practice and skill.